Are Tom-Mates familiar with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)? To understand better, let’s look at MinToms’ explanation of what a Geographic Information System (GIS) is. A geographic Information System is a computer-based system that is used to store, manipulate and analyze geographic information where the information on the earth’s surface was originally presented in the form of maps made manually.
The understanding of Geographic Information Systems according to experts :
1. Gistut (1994) : A system that can then assist spatial decision-making and integrate the characteristics of phenomena and descriptions of locations found at that location. Geographic Information System (GIS) includes technology and methodologies that are then required, including spatial data on hardware or hardware and software and organizational structures.
2. Murai (1999) : An information system that is used to store, enter, retrieve, process, analyze to produce data with geographic references or geospatial data, the aim of which is to support decision making in the management and planning of land use, environment, transportation, city facilities, resources. natural resources, and other public services.
3. Bernhardsen (2002) : A computer system that is then used to manipulate geographic data. This system is then implemented also with hardware or hardware and software or computer software that functions for data verification, compilation, storage, acquisition, and changes to data updating. Not only that, but it also functions as data retrieval and presentation, data management and exchange, data manipulation, and data analysis.
A Geographic Information System (GIS) can present geographic data from the real world (the earth’s surface) to a computer monitor screen. Therefore, a Geographic Information System (GIS) is like a map sheet in digital form, which is dense with information. The information includes complete factual data and the earth’s surface, ranging from topography, soil types, hydrology, culture, geological conditions, to climate. The form of this data is then presented in the form of a map so that the geographic information system cannot be separated from the map which functions as a database.
A geographic Information System (GIS) is formed by interrelated components. There are three important components, namely:
1. Hardware (Hardware)
In the form of equipment that supports GIS work, such as CPU, monitor, printer, digitizer, scanner, plotter, CD ROM, VDU, and flash disk. e. Digitizer: a tool for converting live data into digital data (digitizing)
In the form of GIS work support programs such as data input, data processing, and data output. Examples of software from GIS are work programs such as Q-GIS, ArcView, and ArcGis.
3. Human (User/Brainware)
Humans as users (brainwave), namely implementers who are responsible for collecting, processing, analyzing, and publishing geographic data. It is the brainwave component that processes the field data for further processing or digitization into a map that can be used for certain purposes according to its function.
In the work of a Geographic Information System (GIS) initial data or database is required, i.e. data collected during a survey is entered into a computer, or existing maps are optically arrayed and entered into a computer. The database can be used for further management. The input or data itself can be obtained from field research, maps, government offices, and remote sensing image data. The data itself can be divided into two, namely attribute data and spatial data:
- Attribute data is data that exists in a location or space. This attribute itself describes the information. For example in rice fields, forests, fields, to cities. Attribute data itself can be qualitative for example on the strength of trees, and quantitative for example on the number of trees.
- Spatial data – This is data that can show the location, space, or various places on the earth’s surface. This spatial data itself is presented in two forms, namely vector and raster
Processes in a Geographic Information System (GIS) can also function to manipulate, retrieve, and analyze data stored in a computer. The types of data analysis themselves include:
- Width analysis: is an analysis that processes data from a computer, to then produce a wide riverbank area
- Arithmetic addition analysis: This analysis processes data on a computer, to then produce a sum. This analysis itself can be used for classified maps which will then produce new classifications.
- Line analysis – Analysis of this data processing can be used in determining the region or region in a certain radius. For example, in determining an area prone to earthquakes, disease-prone, and flood-prone.
The data that has been analyzed by the Geographic Information System (GIS) will then inform users of the data so that it can then be used as a basis for making decisions. The output of the Geographic Information System (GIS) can be in the form of hardcopy maps or printed maps, soft copy recordings, or displays. With the existence of a Geographic Information System (GIS) then everyone can make maps and change and modify them quickly and at any time. In addition, users of the Geographic Information System (GIS) can also reprocess the making of maps with a high level of accuracy at any time, for example in making maps of South America based on various available information or themes.
With the development of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in the form of map presentation, the right technique is needed to produce an accurate and representative map to help you monitor ongoing project management. Don’t worry, Tomps also has a Geographic Information System (GIS) feature in the form of a website and application, making it easier for Tom-Mates to see the progress of ongoing projects in real-time and transparently. Interested in trying Geographic Information Systems (GIS)?