In starting any project, the step that must exist is to ensure that the project planning process which includes project scope, project schedule, project resources, and project costs are running well. The things that must be included in project planning are:
Safe: guaranteed safety
Effective: the planning product functions as expected
Efficient: the products produced are cost-effective
Guaranteed quality, does not deviate from the specified specifications
As an important element in project management, project planning involves developing actions and schedules that will keep the project moving consistently when executed according to the project plan. The basic thing to note in project planning is the selection of the resources needed for the project as well as a general framework to achieve the desired goals.
DEFINITION OF PROJECT PLANNING
Project planning is how to complete a project within a certain time, with certain stages, and with designated resources. The focus on project planning is setting goals, identifying, planning schedules, and making support plans including those related to human resources, communication methods, and risk management to stay in the planned flow.
PROJECT PLANNING OBJECTIVES
The following are the objectives of project planning, namely:
Supervision standards, namely matching the implementation with the planning.
Knowing when the implementation and completion of an activity.
Knowing who is involved (organizational structure), both qualifications and quantity.
Get systematic activities including cost and quality of work.
Minimize unproductive activities and save money, energy, and time.
Provide a comprehensive picture of work activities.
Harmonize and integrate several sub-activities.
Detecting obstacles and difficulties that will be encountered.
Leads to the achievement of goals.
PROJECT PLANNING BENEFITS
The following are the benefits of project planning, namely:
Helping management adapt to environmental changes
Assist in the crystallization of conformity in key matters,
Allows managers to understand the overall operating picture more clearly,
Selection of the best alternatives
Implementation and monitoring standards
Preparation of priority scale, both targets, and activities
Save the utilization of organizational resources
The tool makes it easier to coordinate with related parties
Make goals more specific, detailed, and easier to understand
Minimize uncertain work, and
Save time, effort, and funds.
PROJECT PLANNING FUNCTION
The following are the functions of project planning, namely:
A means of communication for all project organizers
Basic resource allocation settings
Tools to encourage planning and execution look ahead and recognize the importance of time.
Guidelines and benchmarks for the control function where improper, unsystematic, and illogical planning will confuse implementation.
PROJECT PLANNING PROCESS
The following is the project planning process, namely:
Project goal setting
The purpose of the organization is will provide direction for all activities to be carried out. For example, to increase the value of the company’s shares on the stock exchange.
The target is a certain point that the organization needs to achieve if it wants to fulfill its goals. For example, with the project goal of increasing the value of the company’s shares, the project’s target is to do things related to the project’s objectives such as building facilities so that the value of the company’s shares goes up.
Initial position assessment against project objectives
This process is carried out to determine the extent of the organization’s readiness and position towards project objectives, for example, to measure the need for human resources, funds, equipment, and personnel. This is indeed not easy, but it requires logical and realistic considerations.
In achieving the project goals and objectives there are various choices of actions and methods, but it should be noted that these must answer the following questions, namely:
– Whether the chosen alternative has enough flexibility to deal with changing circumstances that may arise.
– Is it the best alternative to meet the project’s demands on schedule, cost, and quality.
– Whether the chosen alternative has taken into account the availability of resources when needed.
– Have thought about the use of new technology.
PROJECT PLANNING STAGE
According to (Santosa, 2008) the planning stage in the project life cycle will include preparing detailed project plans and determining detailed project specifications, consisting of:
Budget and cost control system
Work Breakdown Structure in detail
Sections that are high risk and quite difficult and plans for overcoming the possibilities that will arise
Human resource planning and use of other resources
Project result test plan
Job review plan
Project implementation plan
In general, the project planning stages include:
Determine project objectives and other requirements which in this case need to be determined as the final project results, time, costs, and targeted performance.
What work is required to achieve the project objectives should be described and listed.
Determine the project organization starting from what departments must exist, the required subcontractors, and managers who are responsible for the existing work.
The schedule for each work activity that is made needs to pay attention to the time of each activity, the start and finish time, and milestones.
A budget plan and required resources are prepared.
Estimation of project completion time, cost, and performance.
In the planning stage several factors need to be considered, including the following:
The accuracy of choosing the form of organization (team)
Choosing the right project manager
Good integration and coordination activities
What will be done?
How is it controlled?
PROJECT PLANNING CONSTRAINTS AND SOLUTIONS
One of the major responsibilities of a project manager is to be responsive in dealing with various obstacles during the project. For project constraints to be overcome, an effective and efficient solution is needed in project planning. Usually, the common obstacles that occur in project planning are:
Failed to plan properly and correctly
It should be understood that not all project managers have good skills in the project planning process. Sometimes good in terms of execution but weak in the planning process. This is due to a lack of experience, education does not even have the knowledge that is capable of making good and correct plans. The closest solution so that the planning process runs properly and correctly is to explore the potential of the team so that they understand each other who understands about planning and who is not too experienced in project planning.
Lack of commitment during the project planning process
Planning a project will certainly take a lot of thought and time, so you need people who have a strong commitment. Not a few project managers are finally overwhelmed in completing project targets so that it runs the same as the original project plan. The solution that can be done is that the project manager and team must know in detail how their capacity is so that they are not overwhelmed in pursuing the targets that have been made during project planning.
Lack of information and communication
Even if you have good project planning but are constrained by information and communication, the project planning process will be disrupted and even at the risk of project failure. For information and communication to work well, project managers need to use various technology tools that facilitate the process of sharing information and communication between teams
Too focused on the present
A project manager in making project plans must divide the focus into short, medium, and long-term plans. Sometimes, because they are too focused on solving current problems, they neglect planning future projects that have been planned. Therefore, a project manager must always monitor project planning according to the existing timeline even though various obstacles are often unexpected so that small obstacles do not have a major impact on the project in general.
Only focus on the factors that are mastered
Many project managers focus only on what they are good at and neglect other factors. For example, focusing too much on creating new ideas and ideas but ignoring how these ideas and ideas can be implemented. For project planning to run well, a project manager needs to regularly hone his knowledge and knowledge in line with working hours.
Project planning, of course, cannot be separated from various obstacles, both internal and external. To keep every obstacle in the way, the project manager and team must be actively involved in every process from planning to execution.